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Red Spy Tu Zuochao, English translation Fujian TV aired June 12 and 13, 2012 福建电视台2012-6-12+13《红色特工涂作潮》

Red Spy Tu Zuochao

Fujian TV Discovery Program No. 1922 aired at 22:00 on June 12 and 13, 2012

 

During the war time his code name was Carpenter, the master of Li Bai, original figure of the hero Li Xia in the movie The Eternal Wave. He however is obliterated behind the triumphant songs and clarions. His legend remains unknown to almost all. What a saga had he written during his spy life?

 

Title: Red Spy Tu Zuochao

 

Good evening. Discovery Program helps you find the unknown truth. I’m Yu Li. Welcome to today’s program. I wonder if you had seen the movie The Eternal Wave starred by the famous actor Sun Daolin in 1958. This movie enables the ordinary people to know the CCP underground intelligence operators. It was quite a best seller during that time. The hero Li Xia in that movie was using a disguised transmitter (note by this translator and curator. Same below). When the danger came, he only needed to disassemble one part. And this receiver would become a radio set at once. None the less I am telling you today that this part of the movie was a true account. This disguised receiver was said to have been invented by a man code named Carpenter. During that time, when Mao Zedong and Zhou Enlai had troubles with radio communication, they summoned this Carpenter from time to time. But for a long time, the true identity of the Carpenter remains unknown to almost all the people. Who is the man code named Carpenter at end of the day? Why had he commanded such a super skill?

 

Title: Red Spy Tu Zuochao Part 1

 

On January 12, 2012, the Sino-Russia Friendship Association and Russian Cultural Center, etc. jointly ran seminars in Beijing under the program of One Century’s Exchange and One Century’s Friendship.

 

Screen: Poster in Chinese and Russian reads: Saga of a Red Spy—In Memory of Tu Zuochao

 

Screen: Shenghua was speaking at the seminar. Photo of Tu Zuochao. Left illustration reads: Tu Zuochao, from Changsha, Hunan Province, joined CCP in 1924.

 

The saga of a CCP underground operator became one of the most attractive topics. The code name of this underground operator was Carpenter. Indeed he had his carpenter apprenticeship. He was the master of the original figure of the hero in the movie The Eternal Wave. However, for all these years, his story has been obliterated behind the songs of triumph and unknown to this world. He was Tu Zuochao being called as the Magical Craftsman in Secrets.

 

Interviewee Mr. Hao Zaijin, author of Secret War in China:

The figure of Tu Zuochao can be said to be a very special man in the CCP secret service. Firstly the trade of his work. His work was not directly related to intelligence though, deemed a must in the intelligence operation. He was unique. What was his work? It is called radio engineering. That is, the assembly, adjustment and maintenance of the radio communications equipments, etc. Or radio engineering.

 

How Tu Zuochao, originally as a carpenter apprentice, had become an absolutely needed top class radio expert in the CCP Secret Service? What was his connection with the earliest CCP intelligence communication?

 

Screen illustration: A replica of Tu Zuochao’s invention—the disguised receiver. (Note by the translator and curator of Tu Zuochao Exhibition What is on the screen is a 1:1 high-fidelity replica of the 100-Watt transmitter made by Tu Zuochao in Xi’an in December, 1936. This translator and curator had found 3 photos of this transmitter from 2006 to 2013)

 

Hao Zaijin: The earliest intelligence communication was in the following ways. One was going through the post office system. The post office controlled by the Kuomintang or KMT. Sent a letter in secret writing. But this was risky. Because the KMT secret agents had planted their mail examiners in the post office system. It was called postal scrutiny. Your secret writing sometimes would be detected. So later on a manual communication was worked out. That is, the messenger carried the intelligence secretly written and delivered to the destination. This was proven safer than through the postal system. But there came another problem, that is, it would take a long time for a round trip.

 

Because this man carried communication not only took a long time but also easy to be found through search. So this kind of intelligence communication might demand a cost for life. Risk of life was at any time. In order to go with the development of the situation and completely change this positive and backward status, the CCP Central decided to establish our own radio system.

 

Hao Zaijin: Though the radio was said to be good for use and a modern equipment, the Communists at that time were unable to get it. Because the KMT performed a strict radio control in its area of domination. They had their own Radio Control Bureau even during that time. The CC secret agents were in charge of this. That was, any sales of any radio station must be submitted for approval. Even the radio parts were under a strict control. So how was the first CCP radio station born? It was self-made. It was just like what the nowadays young people building their own computers. Assembled by themselves.

 

Screen Photo of Li Qiang

 

In 1929, the first CCP transceiver was assembled under the leadership of Li Qiang, the CCP Secret Service Number 4 (Communication) Section chief. After he learnt of this happy news, Zhou Enlai personally worked out the first CCP secret code called Hao Mi. The CCP at that time was in an extreme shortage of radio personnel. In order to train the secret service personnel, Zhou Enlai sent some people to study overseas. Of them six students were ordered to learn radio technology secretly. Tu Zuochao, alias Tang Baosheng, was on the top of the list.

 

Screen: Zhou Enlai’s photo

Screen: Tu Zuochao’s admission file for his radio study in 1928. (Note by this translator and curator—the file on the screen was the police record on May 20, 1925 after Tu Zuochao was arrested.

 

Then, why Tu Zuochao, who became a carpenter when 13 years old, was chosen to study in Moscow?

 

Shenghua Tu: One day, a gang of hooligans happened to make damages at the trade union where there were female workers only. These hooligans took the advantage to take liberty of the women workers. My father rushed there as soon as he learnt this. He was the only man worker there but he had his pistol. He shot to defeat those hooligans damaging the trade union and taking liberty of the women workers.

 

Screen: Tu Zuochao’s hand writing (of his own autobiography in November 1925 when admitted to Moscow Orient Communist Labor University)

 

Tu Zuochao, who had joined in CCP as early as in 1924, had shot and wounded one hooligan and therefore exposed his CCP identity. So he was sent to study in USSR.

 

Screen: Tu Zuochao entered (photo of) Moscow Orient Communist Labor University

Screen: Tu Zuochao’s signature in Russian (with a red oval mark) (Note by this translator and curator—Tu Zuochao’s signature on the letter dated September 11, 1927 was in Russian. The letter was asking for a further military training at Bekovo Camp. Tu Zuochao was one of the 4 signatories.)

 

During that time, the CCP organization had 3 different arrangements for the young Party members. Those who had not exposed their CCP identities and who enjoyed a strong organizational and leading ability would stay and hide underground in Shanghai. Those physically strong would go to Huangpu Military Academy. Tu Zuochao and another dozen of comrades whose identity had been exposed would go to study in Moscow. But, before his course was completed, Tu Zuochao asked for the termination of his course. Why?

 

Hao Zijin: Normally, they would first had to learn radio operation. But the radio operation was not readily learnt. You must have a quick mind and quick response. And a very fast memory. For instance, when you are receiving and copying down the signals, di di da da…, you have to change them into numerals. Further, when you copy down the incoming signals, you will have to be able to write down what you had heard some time ago while you still keep on memorizing what you are hearing. That is, when you are hearing 1 you are possibly writing 3. What you are writing is what you had previously heard. To make things harder, several groups of codes will have to be kept on mind, upon to 4 to 5 groups. This means in this case you are a good radio operator. This demands both a good memory and quick response. So some people can do while others can not. Perhaps Tu Zuochao was not for this job. He might have failed to keep the signal codes previously received on his mind. Though he had tried hard.

 

This was the only self-statement written by Tu Zuochao. He wrote that “during my study I have felt that my ability to study is poor. So in early 1928, I asked Orient University to terminate my study with immediate effect. It was during this time, too, Moscow’s telecommunications techniques had made a tremendous development. With his strong ability to use his hands, Tu Zuochao concentrated on radio techniques. At the same time, he asked to learn the skills on explosives, gases and bombs, etc. And he would bring these skills back to China for the armed struggles.

 

Screen: Tu Zuochao’s report written to CCP Central and submitted in June 1928 during the CCP 6th National Congress in Moscow

 

Shenghua:  It was on September 11, 1929 when Tu Zuochao was about to complete his radio crash course, the school had made an evaluation for each of the 4 Chinese students. What was the evaluation for Tu Zuochao? It said that his advanced mathematic foundation was weak and his educational background was poor, and that he might fail to complete his one-year enhanced radio crash course, or the one-year speedy training class. At the same time, the evaluation also suggested that his future job was propaganda. This was meant, that in other words, that this student suffered a poor score for his major. And that therefore it was estimated that he might not be able to do a good radio job.

 

It was this very Tu Zuochao who was determined not to be able to do a good radio job in the future had eventually learnt a full load of radio techniques. When the CCP 6th National Congress was held in Moscow, Tu Zuochao attended as a non-vote delegate. Having heard about Tu Zuochao’s backgroundZhou Enlai clapped on his shoulders and said to him; “since you had worked as a carpenter, we will call you Carpenter from now on.”

 

Screen: Zhou Enlai’s photo and Tu Zuuochao’s report written on June 28, 1928 during the CCP 6th National Congress.

 

Over the 20 plus years to come, many CCP Central leaders did not know the real name of Tu Zuochao but they knew the nickname of the Carpenter very well, and this nickname had also become his work code. Though not directly involved in the intelligence communication, Tu Zuochao still faced deadly threats any time. In his saga in the secrets, what kind of life and death trials had he ever been encountered with? Red Spy Tu Zuochao in the Discovery Program will continue airing after the advertisements.

 

During the war time his code name was Carpenter. He was the master of Li Bai, the original figure of Li Xia, the hero in the movie The Eternal Wave. But he has been obliterated behind the triumphant songs and clarions. (Screen: His stories remain unknown almost to all the people) In all the stormy changes in the secrets, and in his saga life, what and how has written about his stories? (Screen: photo of spy signal receiver) Red Spy Tu Zuchao, our Discovery Program is being aired.

 

Yu Li: In radio operation, there are 2 branches. One is radio engineering and another is radio operation. The radio operation concentrates on the transmitting and receiving of the telegram signals. While radio engineering is responsible for the assembly and maintenance of the radios, somehow similar to the electrician. Tu Zuochao’s foreign coaches found that Tu Zuochao was not born for learning the radio operation because he could not remember all the signal codes. So he was asked to shift to radio engineering. Though the radio engineering has a total difference from the carpentry that was well known to Tu Zuochao, these 2 different things both demand a dexterous pair of hands and a smart mind. Nobody had thought that Tu Zuochao was so well fit to the study of radio engineering, like a fish in the water. He could use his knowledge in this field to work out the solution to the problem in another field. And this unqualified radio operator very soon became an expert class radio engineer.

 

In March 1930, after his completion of study of radio techniques in USSR, Tu Zuochao followed the order and returned to Shanghai. His home return was really in a good time. At that time, people who had learnt radio techniques within the CCP were very small numbered. Tu Zuochao thus became a radio engineering coach for the radio training class. At the same time, Tu Zuochao also concentrated on how to hide the secret radios. The most important achievement by Tu Zuochao was his shapeless signal receiver. The movie The Eternal Wave had such a scene whereas the Japanese secret agents stopped power supply one area after another and found where Li Xia was operating his radio. The enemy broke into Li Xia’s home but they did not find the signal receiver. The enemy touched his radio set and found it still warm. This radio set was in fact the shapeless signal receiver invented by Tu Zuochao. Li Xia, the heroic radio operator, was the apprentice of Tu Zuochao. Tu Zuochao taught him the radio engineering skills, hand by hand. It was also the shapeless signal receiver invented by Tu Zuochao that Li Bai took the advantage and escaped from one disaster. The enemy lacked evidence of proof, and had had to release Li Bai finally.

 

Screens: Cuts from the movie and

Photo of Li Bai with illustration saying Li Bai, Tu Zuochao’s apprentice.

 

Then, what was the secret inside the shapeless signal receiver designed by Tu Zuochao In exhibition Shenghua Tu has been specially running for his father, Shenghua’s elder brother, by use of the electronic tubes purchased from the second hand market, restored this shapeless signal receiver.

 

Screen: Shapeless signal receiver demonstrating circuit board and actual radio set able to facilitate the shapeless signal reception as shown at Tu Zuochao Exhibition (located in Xiliuhetun Village, Yanjiao Township, Sanhe City, Hebei Province).

 

Upon the first look, the shapeless signal receiver was basically the same as any electronic tube radio sets in the last century.

 

Shenghua Tu: In 1940, Tu Zuochao invented this shapeless signal receiver. Where are all the secrets for this? Let’s have a look at it. Firstly, the fundamental difference between the signal receiver and the radio set is that the signal receiver has a beater. This beater deems a must for the reception of signals. The radio set has no beater. So it can receive radio broadcastings only, not the signals. If the beater is installed inside the radio set, then the radio set can receive either the broadcastings or the signals. However, this unconsciously constitutes the evidence of signal reception.

 

Tu Zuochao used 2 coils. One end was connected with the vacuum tube, another connected with the oscillating tube. He also amended the volume control of the radio set. And this constituted the beater for the signal receiver. This way, the radio set can receive the telegram signals. Once the coil is off, the signal receiver was back to a normal radio set at once. (Note by the interviewee, this translator and curator)

 

Screen: Shenghua Tu used his left hand to press the small red button of the analogue transmitter that was modified from a market available signal generator. Yanhua Tu, now a permanent resident in Los Angeles, had also made 4 analogue transmitters including this one. In order not to alarm the police, the output of this analogue transmitter is minimal, perhaps less than 0.01 Watt.)

 

Shenghua Tu: And the process to wipe out the evidence took only a few seconds. Now let’s do the following trial. Let’s see if we have a good luck. These electronic tubes are too old. They came from the 1950’s and the 1960’s. Let’s see if they will now play the old game at that time.

 

During the demonstration by Shenghua Tu, this radio set produced some noise of tsi la tsi la shortly afterwards.

 

(Note by this translator and curator: The narrator should have mentioned the core secret of the Tu Zuochao invention: a positive feedback in this circumstance at this time played a role of a temporary beater, and the radio set now was ready to receive the signals.)

 

Shooting team director: Are you imitating the signal sending?

 

Shenghua Tu: No. Receiving signals…Successful! No need for the key. I do not use the key. I am not in a position to use any transmitter. Because I can not use the transmitter.

 

Screen: Inside Tu Zuochao Exhibition located in Yanjiao, Hebei, Shenghua Tu was demonstrating how the shapeless signal receiver was working. To his left, part of the 20:1 model of 338 Weihai Road, Shanghai where the spy receiver was invented in 1940. The front door tag of the address and 2 of the 4 bricks from the old house of the address can be seen.

 

(Notes by the translator and curator—What Shenghua Tu was pressing the button to send signal was a market available signal generator for radio hams. Yanhua Tu, elder brother of Shenghua Tu, had made this signal generator as an analogue transmitter with an extremely small output, as not to cause police attention. On a different subject, the screen followed shows the same shapeless signal receiver demonstrating circuit board, but the TV playwright and editor all mistook this as the transmitter.)  

 

At that time, such a transmitter, after Tu Zuochao’s improvement, its output dropped from 100 Watts to 7 Watts. This transmitter of 7 Watts only could send the signals to Yan’an, some 600 miles away. (Note by this interviewee/translator/curator: This happened between 1939 and 1942)

 

In order to train more radio talents, Tu Zuochao rented a 3-storey house located at (No. 12, Lane 391) Route Ratard (presently Julu Road) in the French Concession. To the outsiders it was the Shanghai Fuli Electricals Company as a disguise. (Notes by the interviewee/translator/petitioner: 1) It was someone else of the CCP Secret Service, not Tu Zuochao himself, who rented this house. 2) This secret location lasted from about October to 17 December, 1930) However, accident descended upon very soon.

 

Shenghua: On December 17, 1930, the CCP Secret Service radio training class was broken closer to noon time. Sixteen trainees and 4 trainers were arrested. The French Concession policemen stayed at the address of the training class.

 

At this time, unconscious of the danger, Tu Zuochao was going to the training class and disguised himself as a painter. He was to lecture on how to kill the transformer noise by use the varnish. Upon his arrival, he knocked the door for a while but nobody answered the door. Tu Zuochao knew something was wrong. But he should not show any restlessness. Very soon, 2 foreign policemen came out.

 

Shenghua: The 2 foreign policemen inside showed their police ID’s such as police badge or its like to him, indicating that he should go away. But Tu Zuochao dared not to go. He appeared to ask for his wage. Finally, the fed-up French policemen kicked him away. So he escaped.

 

On the following day, the newspapers carried the news that the secret radio training class was broken into: “At about 12:00 yesterday, it was secretly reported that someone in the French Concession had established radio station without license and for unjustified purpose. The chief detective had sent both Chinese and foreign detectives there. It so happened that on the third floor, the radio, the earphones and wires, etc were found there and over 20 men and women were arrested. Tu Zuochao did not lose his calmness upon the accident and luckily escaped from this crisis. But, not long after that, the danger was descending upon him silently. This radio engineering expert had almost been beaten by the fact that there was no radio stations for him.

 

Yu Li: Though Tu Zuochao was doing his radio engineering and not directly involved in the intelligence transmission or reception, the dangers during the life and death trials between the enemy and ourselves still existed. As we had just then seen that Tu Zuochao smartly and calmly escaped from danger at the Fuli Company in Shanghai. However, it was beyond his wildest expectation that shortly afterwards another life and death test descended upon him. Then, what had happened? Could he win over in this danger. In his sagas in the sea of the spy war, what other stories he was going to write? In our same program tomorrow we will continue our story about the saga life of Tu Zuochao, the top class radio engineer. I’m Yu Li. See you in tomorrow’s Discovery Program.

 

    His code name was Carpenter during the war time. He was the master of Li Bai, the original figure for Li Xia, the hero star in the movie The Eternal Wave. But he has been obliterated behind the triumphant songs and clarions. In the stormy changes of winds and clouds in the sea of the spy war, what kind of saga life he had written about? The Discovery Program on Red Spy Tu Zuochao will continue to air tomorrow night.

 

 

Fujian TV  Discovery Program 1923

Red Spy Tu Zuochao, Part 2, 22:00 June 13, 2015

 

His code name was Carpenter during the war time. He was the master of Li Bai, the original figure for Li Xia, the hero star in the movie The Eternal Wave. But he has been obliterated behind the triumphant songs and clarions. In the stormy changes of winds and clouds in the sea of the spy war, what kind of saga life he had written about? The Discovery Program on Red Spy Tu Zuochao 

 

Screen: Tu Zuochao invention—shapeless signal receiver

 

Yu Li: The Discovery Program leads you to find the unknown truth. Hello, every one. I’s Yu Li. We mentioned in our yesterday’s program that in the early days of the CCP secret service work there was a very special person. Although he did not directly get involved in the intelligence, he was closely related to the intelligence operation. He was Tu Zuochao, the radio engineer in charge of the radio assembly and maintenance, etc. He had learnt his radio skills when he had been sent to study in Moscow. Finally he became an excellent radio engineer. However, nobody has ever imaged that upon his home return and when he was about to fully demonstrate his talents he almost lost his life.

 

In March 1930, Tu Zuochao, who had learnt his radio techniques in Moscow, had received the order and he returned to Shanghai. His home return was exactly in a good time. During that time, those who had learnt radios within the CCP were very few. Tu Zuochao therefore became the master. He undertook the job to run a training class to train telegram talents. But shortly afterwards the base was broken through by the enemy. Tu Zuochao had no idea about this at that time. By his identity as a painter he escaped. But shortly after that, another danger descended upon silently.

 

In 1930, Jiang Jieshi mobilized his first annihilation campaign against the Central Soviet Base Area. Zhang Huizan, the general commander of the KMT front line, was captured alive by the Red Army. Zhang Huizan was a favorite general of Jiang Jieshi.

 

Screen: Photo of Zhang Huizan.

 

The KMT was willing to release over 100 CCP political prisoners jailed in Nanchang and use this as a condition, along with other conditions, for the exchange for Zhang Huizan. The CCP Central had in principle agreed with these conditions. At the same time, in order to maintain the radio that had been just captured, the CCP Central appointed Tu Zuochao and his team to go to Jiangxi Province.

 

Shenghua Tu: Together with him going to Jiangxi was Li Xiangwu, the Soldiers’ Movement Section secretary of the CCP Central Military Ministry. They both were in the KMT officers’ uniforms. They flew from Shanghai to Jiujiang. Then they took a boat from Jiujiang to Nanchang.

 

Wearing the KMT officers’ uniforms, Tu Zuochao and Li Xiangwu arrived in Nanchang. Suddently, Li Xiangwu saw the news in the newspaper that Zhang Huizan had been beheaded. Because there was no radio communication in time, there was no communication between the CCP Central located in Shanghai and the Central Soviet Base Area in Jiangxi. This had led negotiators Tu Zuochao and Li Xiangwu into the danger. They briefly discussed and took the advantage that the accompanying KMT officer had not known that Zhang Huizan was dead. They escaped and ran straight outside the Nanchang City.

 

After they had run for 9 miles, they arrived at a place called Cheng Gang Wei Cun Village. Because it was raining that day afternoon or early evening time, so they both were totally wet. They could not walk any longer, either. The host came out as a result. He saw 2 men in the KMT officers’ uniforms and they were totally wet. He invited them inside.

 

Narrator: Soon after Tu Zuochao and Li Xiangwu had entered and sat down, the host calmly put 4 tea cups in front of each guest and filled each cup with tea. Both Tu Zuochao and Li Xiangwu working as the underground operators knew that they had bumped into a member of the Qing-Hong Brotherhood.

 

Shenghua Tu: That was a greeting code among the Qing-Hong Brotherhood members. If any inner Brotherhood members meet for the first time, upon their meeting yet without knowing the other party’s identity, one of the greeting codes was that 4 tea cups would tell what. If you picked up the first tea cup, it meant that I was idling today and visiting you only for a chat. If you picked up the second tea cup, what did that mean? It meant that I am unhappy today and may I come to you for some comforting words? If the third was picked up, it meant that I am short of money today and will you help me financially? The 4th cup picked up meant that I am in danger now and will you save my life?

 

Narrator: Luckily both knew the mafia code language. They both picked up the 4th tea cups representing SOS. After the tea cup had been picked up, they did not drink the tea straightforward. Instead, they pored the water in the tea cup onto the ground and returned the tea cup to its original place. They then waited for the host to re-fill the tea cup. They answered the first code quickly. After that, the host sent his second code, putting the chop sticks in a certain way. As a result the second code was answered correctly. They changed the chop sticks to stay horizontally in front of each of them from the front-back direction of each of their own sitting.

 

Shenghua: After these 2 rounds of activity, the host was convinced that these 2 Brotherhood members were in an SOS situation. Some time ago the host had come to know that the KMT troops annihilating the Red Army were defeated by the Red Army. Obviously these 2 Brotherhood members were in a crisis and that he should save their lives.

 

Narrator: Therefore the host Wei Chaopeng recognized them as his own brothers and kept them in his home, warmly and loyally. Very soon the three men became sworn brothers. One week later, Wei Chaopeng disguised them as china merchants and accompanied them back to Shanghai. Many years later, in order to express the gratitude for the life-saving favor, Shenghua Tu, after years of great endeavors, found the posterity of Wei Chaopeng, who had saved his father, and presented a Grateful Tablet to the Wei family as an eternal gratitude.

 

Screens: The circular of official appraisal for Wei Chaopeng’s rescue of Tu Zuochao and Li Xiangwu issued by the Nanchang Suburb District in 1997. (The black background is) The Grateful Tablet.

 

After that test of life and death, Tu Zuochao eventually arrived in the Central Soviet Base Area shortly afterwards.

 

Screen: Photo of Tu Zuochao and his fellows taken on December 30, 1945 in Yan’an. Some tools used by Tu Zuochao in the post-1949 time after the People’s Republic was founded.

 

Narrator: With the pliers and wrench in his hand, he had assembled and maintained the first batch of radios for the Red Army. Finally the Central Soviet Base Area was able to communicate with the CCP Central in Shanghai by the radio.

 

Screen: Photo of a replica of a transmitter made by Tu Zuochao

 

But not long after that, a severe situation tested the determination of Tu Zuochao again.

 

Hao Zaijin: Those CCP intelligence operators in the early stage shared a common feature. That was, each of them was a lonely hero. The intelligence was different from the massive troops. When the troops were fighting they were in a collective team. And within this team they screened each other. As we can see from the TV Series entitled The Soldiers Are Attacking. They did not give up nor abandon their own fellows. As an organization no one was going to be abandoned. As an individual he would not give up his team. It was a spirit of never departing and never giving up. But as an intelligence operator, you normally had to fight by yourself. You had no team around you. This would test one’s determination most seriously.

 

Narrator: On October 10, 1934, due to the most unfavorable war situation, the Chinese Workers’ and Peasants’ Red Army had had to withdraw from the Central Base Area and began their Long March of 8,000 miles. At this time Tu Zuochao was suffering from malaria and left in the Soviet Base Area.

 

Hao Zaijin: During that time, those who were left were in the most danger. Because the KMT had hundred and thousand troops annihilating the Red Army. The Central Red Army of a few dozens of thousand men had broken out of the encirclement. While those who were left were counted at a few thousand only. Therefore those who were left were in the most dangerous situation.

 

Tu Zuochao, who had been left in the Soviet Base Area, was continuing his job to maintain the radios. So that the troops in the Soviet Base Area kept communications with the troops on the Long March. But not long after that, the radios in the Soviet Base Area were destroyed by the enemy. Tu Zuochao suddenly fell into a dilemma whereas his talents had no place to perform. At this time, the organization had decided that Tu Zuochao go to Western Hunan Province to join in the troops commanded by He Long. Because it was there that his talents would be performed. Tu Zuochao had pondered hard before he determinedly took his steps onto the long road of his own Long March. Accidents descended upon again. Whether or he could adhere to the last? Red Spy Tu Zuochao of the Discovery Program will be aired after the ads.

 

During the war time his code name was Carpenter. He was the master of Li Bai, the original figure of Li Xiathe hero in the movie The Eternal Wave. But he has been obliterated behind the triumphant songs and clarions. In the stormy changes of the spy ocean, what a saga life had he ever written? Red Spy Tu Zuochao of the Discovery Program is now being aired.

 

Yu Li: During the most difficult time of the Red Army, they were forced to begin their Long March. Before the Long March had begun, Tu Zuochao was left in the Soviet Base Area because of his malaria. In the mean time he was responsible for the Red Army communications between the Soviet Base Area and those on the Long March. But not long after that the radios in the Soviet Base Area were destroyed by the enemy. At this time Tu Zuochao seemed to have no place to perform his talents when the organization proposed that he go to West Hunan Province to join in the troops commanded by He Long. There was a radio there. Therefore, he began his own Long March. Though the distance from the Central Soviet Base Area was not great, the enemy had planted various checks and barriers alongside the road. Tu Zuochao tried his utmost in one and half years before he finally found the Party organization. One man in one and half years had experienced as many hardships as we may image. Then, how Tu Zuochao had persisted?

 

Narrator: In order to find the Red Army in West Hunan, Tu Zuochao started from the Central Base Area alone and his destination was West Hunan Province. But the road leading to West Hunan Province was heavily blockaded. No one could image the hardships and dangers alongside Tu Zuochao’s way. It happened that when Tu Zuochao had only reached his first stop at Xunwu, he was caught by the local civilians’ guards. They took away all his money.

 

Hao Zaijin: Fortunately there was an older man from among the civilians’ guards showed sympathy for him. He said that this young man did not look like a senior CCP leader. So we might spare his life. So they released Tu Zuochao.

 

Narrator: Having survived another disaster, Tu Zuochao continued his journey without thinking any further. He took advantage of his carpentry to keep a least living. At the same time he began thinking of his future.

 

Hao Zaijin, author of China’s Secret War: At this time he did have his own thinking. He thought that since the Party seemed to have abandoned me, should I look for the Party? In present time, you can not image how arduous it was at that time. Actually there were such people who simply betrayed.

 

Narrator: How to find his own organization at end of the day? There were storms in the heart of Tu Zuochao at that time. However he believed in that the triumph would eventually come. So he continued his steps forward and took a detour to Guangdong.

 

Screen: Because Jiangxi Province was blockaded, Tu Zuochao took the detour to Shaoguan, Guangdong Province. From Shaoguan he had planned for his hometown Changsha, Hunan.

 

Hao Zaijin: When in Guangdong, his carpentry was appreciated. When he was working as a temporary carpenter, the local people persuaded him that his skills should support him anywhere. Why do you insist on looking for your people? So he had some more thoughts. Perhaps I should stay and begin my new life and why should I look for the Party? But later on he thought that wouldn’t work. In this case I would become a speculator. He still believed that some day the CCP would take over the whole country. If that day comes I will become a funny stuff. So he continued his way to Changsha.

 

Screen: Tu Zuochao came to Changsha from Guangdong. Then from Changsha to Shanghai. He believed that he should be able to find the CCP connections in Shanghai.

 

Narrator: From April, 1935, Tu Zuochao by himself alone, walked, took a boat or rode in train. He traveled 3,000 miles through 6 provinces and experienced countless hardships before he had arrived in Shanghai. But, what he had got remained nothing but disappointment.

 

Hao Zaijin: So he went to the rendezvous, for instance, that particular hotel, and stayed there. After even one week of his stay, nobody showed up. He had spent up all his money. He wandered in the street. He had also sneaked aboard a Soviet cargo ship and tried to communicate with the Soviets. But the Soviets simply could not believe him thinking he might be a KMT secret agent playing tricks aboard. What to do? Every effort had been tried but simply no result.

 

Narrator; Perhaps, Tu Zuochao’s firm belief that the revolution would eventually win had supported him for one year and half in his lonely search for the Party organization. Finally, with the help of a fellow worker, he eventually found the Party connection. Very soon Tu Zuochao established his Fusheng Radio Co at 338 Weihaiwu Road as a disguise for his secret radios again. He even kept his wife from knowing what he was really doing. It was 5 years after their marriage, and that was in 1942, Tu Zuochao suddenly faced a crisis whereas his identity would be exposed. 

 

Screens: The model of Fusheng (Happy Voice) Radio Co before the old house was demolished. A photo of the Tu family in 1950. Photo of the kerosene stove used by the Tu family. The white tray used by Tu Zuochao to keep the radio parts from rolling away.

 

Narrator: He would have to withdraw Shanghai urgently. The reason was that Li Bai, Tu Zuochao’s apprentice, was arrested by the Japanese. Not until the moment before his withdrawal did he tell the truth to his wife.

 

Shenghua: He said that Mr. Li is in trouble. I must leave in rush. I will be back with you in the future. If it so happens that I fail to return, you remember one thing. My real name is not Jiang Lingen as it is called now. My real name is Tu Zuochao. You try to remember how to write these 3 characters. He said that I am a Communist. If in the future when I am back then I am home. If I do not come back, you remember that if the Communists are in the power you go to Mao Zedong. He is the Communist leader. He will take care of the livelihood for the mother and the kids. But if the Communists fail to be the ruler you shall no longer remember the name of Tu Zuochao. You marry away with our kids.

 

Screen: One year later the underground messenger brought the family members to the New 4th Army base area in North Jiangsu Province. The family reunited and remained together ever since.

 

Narrator: In about 1957, the August 1 Film Studio was shooting the movie The Eternal Wave. They learnt the special contribution by Tu Zuochao. They found Tu Zuochao and asked him to make the costumes. From then on, the Tu brothers often saw their father, while smoking his cheap Labor brand cigarette, busy with the costumes.

 

Shenghua: My father, after he had made the key model, noticed that my elder brother was keeping on watching him. He said to my brother, come on and have a try. My brother was 14 years old then. He was curious and pressing the key with joy. Suddenly when my brother turned back and saw my father’s eyes were full of sadness. My father, in a saddest voice, said, only the ghost can receive.

 

Screen: Tu Zuochao was a military representative after liberation in 1949. He was a deputy section chief at Shanghai No. 2 Heavy Industry Bureau. Died in Beijing in 1984.

 

Narrator: Tu Zuochao seldom talked about his stories in the revolutionary times. But, at that moment, the deepest sadness on his mind for his lost comrade in arms has most deeply impressed his kids.

 

Screen: Photo of Tu Zuochao (right) with his comrade in arms in 1956. Boy in middle was Shenghua Tu when 5. Another photo of Tu Zuochao with his comrades in arms in Yan’an in 1946 (not 1943, as the screen shows, note by this translator and curator) .

 

Narrator: Perhaps due to his almost 20 years of underground practices and tests, he had been used to be behind the scene and ignorant for his own reputation and benefit. When Zhou Enlai passed away, the CCP Central Investigation Minister Luo Qingchang sent his messenger to Tu Zuochao who was hospitalized. The messenger delivered the notice to pay the last respect to Zhou Enlai’s body.

 

Screen: Two photos of Shenghua Tuhis wife Wei Yufen and their daughter Tu Weixian visited the ailing Luo Qingchang on August 1, 2010. One photo of Tu Zuochao and his fellows including Li Qiang taken in late 1970’s.

 

Narrator: His paralyzed left hand, still moveable a bit, was trembling and his tears burst out. On December 31, 1984, this old man whose CCP membership back in 1924 closed his eyes for ever. However, his son has opened this thick book about his father.

 

Screen: Inside Tu Zuochao Exhibition.

 

Yu Li: During the war time, Tu Zuochao silently made his contribution in the secret services. After the founding of the People’s Republic he had also made a special contribution for our country’s atomic industry. For instance, he had invented the mineral detector (Correction by this translator and curator—not invented. Should have been succeeded in copying). Thereforesomeone has commented on him this way: He was not only a fighter but also an expert. I think a more suitable evaluation should be that he was a fighter of the expert type who has undergone countless hardships. However, little people know about Tu Zuochao today. Nowadays, many people like watching spy movies just like many other people in the past who liked watching the movie The Eternal Wave. That movie had made a vast response. I think, however the artistic process has been wonderful, the more wonderful remain what those real nameless heroes and heroines have undergone and what they have contributed. Well, so far for today’s Discovery. Thank you for your attention. I’m Yu Li. See you tomorrow at the same time.

 

Director    Lan Feng

Photography:  Huang Qinghui 

Movie:       Huang Chen, Li Miao

Narration:     Wang Weiguo

Music:       Jiang Yizeng

Accustics:     Wu Hongfeng

Techniques:    Zhao Hui

Chief Editor:  Yu Li, Huang XiaoyongZhang Jiayu

Executive Producers: Ding Juan, Hong Wei

Producer:    Lian Zhenhai

Supervisors:  Shi Qing, Sun Yuan, Fang Jianwen

General Supervisor: Xiong Shishun

 

 

Shenghua Tu’s notes--Except Li Qiang’s photo and Moscow Orient Communist Labor University photo, all photos and archives on screens in this TV program came from Tu Zuochao Exhibition. The TV shooting director who spent 16 hours at the exhibition and with Shenghua Tu did not let Shenghua Tu proof read his playwright as promised.

 

The translator certifies that the above is a complete and accurate transition from the Chinese original. Any willful wrong or misleading translation shall result in litigation or penalty or both.

Signed by                        Shenghua Tu, Level III (professional Mandarin-English both way interpreter file # 19690 at Australian NAATI, National Accreditation Authority for Translators and Interpreters in 1992) on April 15, 2015